Bash Bar Charts for Text and Web Pages

This blog documents my notes on creating Bash text bar charts. The key topics are:

  • Create a simple horizontal bars (3 lines)
  • Create dynamic bars (~25 lines for an array of data values)
  • Add support for piped and command line data
  • Include options for: help, resizing, titles
  • Add colour and HTML support

A Horizontal Bar

To create a static bar an printf statements can be used. The seq {0..10} can be used to repeat an ASCII █ fill character 10 times.

$ printf 'LABEL: ' ; \
  printf '█%.0s' {1..10} ; \
  printf ' 10\n'

LABEL: ████████████████████ 10

Unfortunately the printf statement has some limitations on variable substitution. A simple workaround is to create a string and then eval it:

$ label="temp"; val=20;
$ bar="printf '█%.0s' {1..$val}" ; 
$ printf '\n%-5s ' $label; eval $bar ; printf ' %d\n' $val

temp  ████████████████████ 20

Coloured Bars

The tput setaf command can change the foreground, and tput setab is used for background colours. Colour codes are:

tput setab [1-7] # Set the background colour using ANSI escape
tput setaf [1-7] # Set the foreground colour using ANSI escape

Num  Colour    #define         R G B

0    black     COLOR_BLACK     0,0,0
1    red       COLOR_RED       1,0,0
2    green     COLOR_GREEN     0,1,0
3    yellow    COLOR_YELLOW    1,1,0
4    blue      COLOR_BLUE      0,0,1
5    magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA   1,0,1
6    cyan      COLOR_CYAN      0,1,1
7    white     COLOR_WHITE     1,1,1

To reset colours back to the defaults use: tput sgr0

An example to print a red bar and a stack of bars:

$ printf '\nLABEL: ' ; \
   tput setaf 1 ;\
   printf '█%.0s' {1..10} ; \
   printf ' 10\n'

LABEL: ██████████ 10
$ printf '\n 3 Stacked Bars: ' ; \
   tput setaf 1 ;\
   printf '█%.0s' {1..10} ; \
   tput setaf 2 ;\
   printf '█%.0s' {1..8} ; \
   tput setaf 4 ;\
   printf '█%.0s' {1..3} ; \
   printf ' 10+8+3=21\n'

 3 Stacked Bars: █████████████████████ 10+8+3=21

Dynamic Bars

The next step is to create a script that dynamically updates the bars. The tput clear command will clear the terminal screen keep the data and bars in the same location. The script below will dynamically show the CPU temperature, idle time and 2 random values with a 10 second update time.

#!/bin/bash
# 
# cpu_bars.sh - Show new data every 10 seconds
#
while :; do
    # Get data values
    CPUtemp=$(sensors | grep CPU | awk '{print substr($2,2,4)}')
    CPUidle=$(iostat | awk '{if (NR==4) print $6}')
    Random1=$((1+ $RANDOM % 100))
    Random2=$((1+ $RANDOM % 100))

    labels=( CPUtemp CPUidle Random1 Random2)
    values=( $CPUtemp $CPUidle $Random1 $Random2)
    units=( degC % psi mm)

    # Show a title
    tput clear
    printf " %10s " "" 
    tput setaf 7; tput smul;
    printf "%s\n\n" "Show CPU Data ($(date +%T'))"
    tput rmul;

    # cycle thru data and show a label, 
    for index in "${!labels[@]}"
    do
          tput setaf $(expr $index + 1); # don't use 0 (black) 
          printf " %10s " "${labels[index]}"
          eval "printf '█%.0s' {1..${values[index]%.*}}"
          printf " %s %s\n\n" ${values[index]} ${units[index]}
    done
    sleep 10
done

This script is run by: bash cpu_bars.sh .Typical output is below.

Bars in HTML

The ANSI colours are not supported in HTML, so instead HTML tags and style properties can be used.

It is important to use <pre> tags for Bash text output. Code to create two static bars in HTML would be:

$ (printf "<h1>A Bar from Bash</h1>\n" 
 printf "<pre><span style='font-size:24px;color:red'}>\n"
 printf 'LABEL1: ' ; printf '█%.0s' {1..10} ; printf ' 10\n'
 printf "</pre></span>\n") > bar1.htm

$ cat bar1.htm
<h1>A Bar from Bash</h1>
<pre><span style='font-size:24px;color:red'}>
LABEL1: ██████████ 10
</pre></span>

The script cpu_webbars.sh creates HTML output for an array of calculated values:

#!/bin/bash
# 
# cpu_webbars.sh - Show bars in HTML
#

# Get data values
CPUtemp=$(sensors | grep CPU | awk '{print substr($2,2,4)}')
CPUidle=$(iostat | awk '{if (NR==4) print $6}')
Random1=$((1+ $RANDOM % 100))
Random2=$((1+ $RANDOM % 100))

labels=( CPUtemp CPUidle Random1 Random2)
values=( $CPUtemp $CPUidle $Random1 $Random2)
units=( degC % psi mm)
colors=(red blue green magenta)

# Show a title
printf "<h1><center>Show CPU Data ($(date '+%T'))</center></h1>\n"
# cycle thru data and show a label, 
for index in "${!labels[@]}"
  do
  printf "<pre><span style='font-size:18px;color: ${colors[index]} '}>\n"
  printf " %10s " "${labels[index]}"
  eval "printf '█%.0s' {1..${values[index]%.*}}"
  printf " %s %s\n\n" ${values[index]} ${units[index]}
  printf "</pre></span>\n"
done

This script can be run and outputted to an file: bash cpu_webbars.sh > test.htm

Once the basic HTML output is working its possible to add headers and footers to make a more complete page:

header.htm > test.htm ; \
cat cpu_webbars.sh >> test.htm ; \
cat footer >> test.htm 

Piping Data to Bars

A script (hbar0.sh) will read the piped data and then create an array (data) of labels and values. The data array is cycled through and labels and bars are shown with a randomized colour:

#!/bin/bash
# hbar0.sh - Read in piped data  and plot bars
#     format: label,value;label2,value2;  and plot bars
#
input=$(< /dev/stdin) ; # read piped data
# remove new lines in files, and check for ";" after data pair 
input=$(echo $input | tr -d '\n')
IFS=';' read -r -a data <<< $input
printf "\n" 
for element in "${data[@]}"pete@lubuntu:~/Writing/Blog/text_bars
do 
  # make at array of each data element
  IFS=',' read -r -a datapt <<< $element
  # add a random color
  tput setaf $((1+ $RANDOM % 7))
  # print the label, bar and value
  printf " %10s " "${datapt##*[0]}"
  bar="printf '█%.0s' {1..${datapt[1]}}"
  eval $bar
  printf " %s\n\n" ${datapt[1]} 
  tput rmso ; # exit color mode   
done

The script can be tested with piped data:

$ echo "temp,33;pressure,44" | bash hbar0.sh

 temp       █████████████████████████████████ 33 

 pressure   ████████████████████████████████████████████ 44 

A data file can also be passed in using the cat command:

$ cat data0.txt 
temp,44;
humidity,33;
pressure,15;
wind spd,33;
wave ht,3;
$ cat data0.txt | bash hbar0.sh

       temp ████████████████████████████████████████████ 44

   humidity █████████████████████████████████ 33

   pressure ███████████████ 15

   wind spd █████████████████████████████████ 33

    wave ht ███ 3

Removing ANSI Colors

Terminal applications use ANSI color codes which unfortunately is not support on Web pages.

ANSI color codes can be removed from files and strings by:

# Strip out ANSI color codes:
cat infile | sed 's/\x1b\[[0-9;]*m//g' > outfile
$ echo "temp,33;pressure,44" | bash hbar0.sh > hbar0.txt
$ cat hbar0.txt

       temp █████████████████████████████████ 33

   pressure ████████████████████████████████████████████ 44

$ cat hbar0.txt | sed 's/\x1b\[[0-9;]*m//g'

       temp █████████████████████████████████ 33

   pressure ████████████████████████████████████████████ 44

A Final App

With the basics in place I was able to create an app that would support scaling, titles, units, custom colour and web output:

$ ./hbars
usage: hbars [data] [option] 
  -h --help     print this usage and exit
  -c --color    set color to all bars (default 7=white)
                 (0-grey,1-red,2=green,3=yellow,4=blue,5=magenta,6=cyan,7=white)
  -p --pretty   add different colors to bars (-c overrides)
  -t --title    top title
  -w --width    max width of bar (default 50)
  -W --Web      make output HTML formatted
  -f --fontsize fontsize for web output (default 24)

 examples:
   echo 'temp,33,C;pressure,14,psi' | ./hbars -t Weather -p -w 40 
   ./hbars -t Weather -p -w 40  'temp,33;pressure,14' 
   cat data.txt | ./hbars -W -f 24 -t 'Raspi Data' > data.htm

The code:

#!/bin/bash
#
# hbars.sh - show some text bars
#   pass data as:  label1,value1,unit1,color1; label2,value2,unit2,colour2; ....  
#
width=50
title=""
color=7
pretty=False
web=False
font=24

usage() { 
  echo "usage: hbars [data] [option] "
  echo "  -h --help     print this usage and exit"
  echo "  -c --color    set color to all bars (default 7=white)"
  echo "                 (0-grey,1-red,2=green,3=yellow,4=blue,5=magenta,6=cyan,7=white)"
  echo "  -p --pretty   add different colors to bars (-c overrides)"
  echo "  -t --title    top title"
  echo "  -w --width    max width of bar (default 50)"
  echo "  -W --Web      make output HTML formatted"
  echo "  -f --fontsize fontsize for web output (default 24)"
  echo ""
  echo " examples:"
  echo "   echo 'temp,33,C;pressure,14,psi' | ./hbars -t Weather -p -w 40 "
  echo "   ./hbars -t Weather -p -w 40  'temp,33;pressure,14' "
  echo "   cat data.txt | ./hbars -W -f 24 -t 'Raspi Data' > data.htm"
  echo ""

  exit 0
}
# Show help usage if no pipe data and no cmd line data
if [ -t 0 ]  && [ $# -eq 0 ] ; then
  usage
fi
# Check for command line options
while getopts "hpc:t:w:Wf:" arg; do
  case "$arg" in
    h) usage ;;
    c)  color=$OPTARG ;;
    p)  pretty=True; icolor=0 ;;
    t)  title=$OPTARG ;;
    w)  width=$OPTARG ;;
    W)  web=True;;
    f)  font=$OPTARG ;;
  esac
done
#------------------------------------------------
# Setup formatting for text, Web and color
# -----------------------------------------------
if [[ ${color} != 7 && ${pretty} = True ]]; then
  pretty=False
fi
colidx=0

setcolors() {
if [ $web = True ]; then
  colors=(gray red green yellow blue magenta cyan white)
  titlebold="echo '<h1>'"
  titlereset="echo '</h1>'"
  #color_set='echo "<span style=font-size:$(font)px  >" ' 
  #color_set="printf '<span  style=\"font-size:$(font)px;color:${colors[colidx]}\" >'" 
  color_set="printf '<pre><span style=\"color:${colors[colidx]} ; font-size:${font}px \" >'" 
  color_rs="echo '</span></pre>'"
else
  colors=(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 )
  titlebold="tput bold; tput smul"
  titlereset="tput rmul; tput rmso"
  color_set="tput setaf ${colors[colidx]}"
  color_rs="tput rmso"
fi
}
setcolors
#----------------------------------------------
# Get data, check if stdlin, file, if not assume string
#----------------------------------------------
if [ -p /dev/stdin ]; then
        lastarg=$(< /dev/stdin)
else
	lastarg=$(echo "${@: -1}")
	if test -f "$lastarg"; then
	  lastarg=$(<$lastarg)
	fi
fi
# Cleanup the input data
lastarg=$(echo $lastarg | sed 's/\n/;/g; s/  / /g; s/\t//g; s/;;/;/g')
IFS=';' read -r -a array <<< $lastarg

# ensure that there is some data
if [[ ${array} == 0 ]]; then
  echo "No data found"
  exit 0
fi
echo "input:$lastarg"
#exit 0
#------------------------------------
# Get max value and max label length
#------------------------------------
maxval=0
maxlbl=10
#echo "array:${array[@]}"
for element in "${array[@]}"
do 
  IFS=',' read -r -a datapt <<< $element
  if (( $(echo "$maxval < ${datapt[1]}" |bc -l) )); then
	maxval=${datapt[1]}
  fi
  if (( $(echo "$maxlbl < ${#datapt[0]}" |bc -l) )); then
	maxlbl=${#datapt[0]}
  fi
done
#---------------------------------
# Print Title - use bold/underline
#---------------------------------
if [[ ! -z $title ]]; then
  printf "\n %${maxlbl}s " " "
  eval $titlebold
  printf "%s" "${title}" ; printf "\n\n"
  eval $titlereset
fi
#------------------------------------
# Cycle thru data and build bar chart
#------------------------------------
for element in "${array[@]}"
do
# check data values
  IFS=',' read -r -a datapt <<< $element
  # check for empty records
  if [ ${#datapt[0]} = 0 ]; then 
    break
  fi
  label=${datapt[0]}
  if [[ ${label} != "-t*" ]]; then 
	  val=${datapt[1]}
	  sval=$(bc <<< "$width * $val / $maxval")

	  # add color, use 4th item if available
	  if [[ ${#datapt[@]} > 3 && $pretty = False ]]; then
		icolor=${datapt[3]}
	  fi
	  if [[ $pretty = True ]] ; then
		let colidx++
		if [ $colidx -gt 7 ]; then
		  let colidx=1
		fi
	  elif [[ ${#datapt[@]} > 3 ]]; then
		colidx=${datapt[3]}
	  else
	  	colidx=$color
	  fi
	  setcolors
          eval $color_set
          printf " %${maxlbl}s " "$label"
	  bar="printf '█%.0s' {1..$sval}"
	  eval $bar; 
	  # add value and units if available
	  units=""
	  if [[ ${#datapt[@]} > 2 ]]; then
		units=${datapt[2]}
	  fi
	  printf " %d %s\n\n" $val "$units"
	  eval $color_rs 
  fi
done

SQL Output to Bars

With the base code I was able to start doing some more complicated actions, like piping SQL SELECT output. Below is an example from Sqlite3. The first step is to format the SQL output to: label,value;

pete@lubuntu:$ sqlite3 $HOME/dbs/someuser.db "select fname,age from users limit 4"
Brooke|18
Leah|18
Pete|100
Fred|77
pete@lubuntu:$ sqlite3 $HOME/dbs/someuser.db "select fname,age from users limit 4" \
>  | tr  '|' ',' | tr '\n' ';'
Brooke,18;Leah,18;Pete,100;Fred,77;
pete@lubuntu:$ sqlite3 $HOME/dbs/someuser.db "select fname,age from users limit 4" \ > | tr '|' ',' | tr '\n' ';' | ./hbars -t "Sqlite3 Users" -p Sqlite3 Users Brooke █████████ 18 Leah █████████ 18 Pete ██████████████████████████████████████████████████ 100 Fred ██████████████████████████████████████ 77

Web Page with Bars

Support was added for fixed chart width, engineering units and custom line colours. HTML <center> tags were used on the title.

$ cat data.txt
temp,44,degC,1;
humidity,33,%,4;
air pressure,88,mm Hg,5;
rain/precipation,6,mm,6;

$ cat data.txt | ./hbars -W -f 24 -w 50 -t '<center>Raspi Data</center>' > data.htm

Final Comments

Horizontal bars are relatives easy to create in Bash. Unfortunately showing vertical bars and Line charts will require a different approach

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s